Reference ranges of laboratory parameters determined at the different divisions of the Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology

Reference range

Chemistry

 

Albumin

30-60 g/L

Alkaline Phosphatase

100-280 U/L

Amylase

<220 U/L

Amylase (urine)

<900 U/L

Ammonia

male:16-60 µmol/L

female:11-51 µmol/L

Anion gap

male:10-20 mmol/L

Apolipoprotein A-I

>1.15 g/L

Apolipoprotein B

<1.0 g/L

CK

24-195 U/L

CK-MB

<25 U/L and < 6%

Phosphate

0.80-1.45 mmol/L

Phosphate (urine)

12.9-42 mmol/day

Fructosamine

<285 µmol/L

GGT

7-50 U/L

Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) MDRD

>90 mL/min/1.73m2

Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) Quadratic

>90 mL/min/1.73m2

Glucose

3.6-6.0 mmol/L

GOT

<40 U/L

GPT 

<40 U/L

HDL-cholesterol

male>0.9 mmol/L, female> 1.1 mmol/L

Uric acid

male:220-420 µmol/L

female:140-340 µmol/L

Uric acid (urine)

1.48-4.43 mmol/day

Calcium (urine)

2.5-7.5 mmol/day

Potassium

3.5-5.3 mmol/L

Potassium (urine)

25-125 mmol/day

Chloride

99-111 mmol/L

Chloride (urine)

110-250 mmol/day

Cholesterol

<5.2 mmol/L

Cholinesterase

4.3-13.2 kU/L

Conjugated bilirubin

< 4 µmol/L

Creatinine

male: 62-106 µmol/L
female: 44-97 µmol/L

Creatinine clearance (CCLR)

95-160 mL/min

Creatinine (urine)

male: 7100-17700 µmmol/kg/day
female: 5300-15900 µmol/kg/day

Lactate

0.5-2.2 mmol/L

LDH

230-460 U/L

LDL-cholesterol

<3.4 mmol/L

Lipase

<210 U/L

Lithium (therapeutic range)

0.6-1.2 mmol/L

Lp(a)

<300 mg/L

Sodium

137-150 mmol/L

Sodium (urine)

40-220 mmol/day

Normalized Ionized calcium

1.13-1.32 mmol/L

Osmolality

275-301 mmol/kg

Prostatic acid phosphatase

<3.5 U/L

Acid phosphatase

<6.6 U/L

Total bicarbonate

22-31 mmol/L

Total bilirubin

3-17 µmol/L

Total calcium

2.1-2.6 mmol/L

Magnesium

0.6-1.1 mmol/L

Total protein

60-80 g/L

Total protein (CSF)

150-450 mg/L

Total protein (urine)

0-150 mg/L

Triglyceride

<1.7 mmol/L

Urea

3.6-7.2 mmol/L

Urea (urine)

330-580 mmol/day

 

Immunochemistry

 

Alpha-1 antitrypsin

0.9-2 g/L

Anti-streptolysin O titer

<120 IU/L

vitamin B12

145-637 pmol/L

C reactive protein

male: <5 mg/L

female: <4.6 mg/L

child: <2.2 mg/L

Cystatin C

0.50-0.96 mg/L

Ceruloplasmin

0.2-0.6 g/L

Ferritin

male:16.4-323 µg/L

female:6.9-283 µg/L

Folic acid

7.0-39.7 nmol/L

Haptoglobin

0.3-2 g/L

Homocysteine

<12.5 µmol/L

IgA

male:0.9-4.1 g/L

female: 0.7-3.7 g/L

IgG

male:6.9-14 g/L

female: 6.9-14 g/L

IgM

male:0.34-2.1 g/L

female:0.4-2.4 g/L

Ig kappa light chain

1.38-3.75 g/L

Ig lambda light chain

0.93-2.42 g/L

Kappa-lambda ratio

1.17-2.93

Kappa-lambda ratio (urine)

0.75-4.5

Cardiac troponin T

<30 ng/L

Microalbuminuria (concentration)

<20 mg/L

Microalbuminuria (clearance)

<30 mg/day

Myoglobin

<53 µg/L

Prealbumin

0.2-0.4 g/L

Procalcitonin

<0.5 µg/L

S-100

<0.15 µg/L

Carbohydrate deficient -transferrin

<2.6%

Solubile transferrin receptor

0.85-2.3 mg/L

Total transferrin

2.0-3.8 g/L

Transferrin saturation

16-45%

Iron

male:10.6-28.3 µmol/L female:6.6-26 µmol/L

 

Chromatography

 

5-HIAA (urine)

3.7-42.9 µmol/day

Epinephrine

<0.41 nmol/L

Epinephrine (urine)

3-109 nmol/day

Urea Breath Test (Helicobacter pylori test)

< 4 ‰

Dopamine

< 0.88 nmol/L

Dopamine (urine)

424-2612 nmol/day

Hemoglobin A1c

4.2-6.1%

Hemoglobin A2

2.0-3.5%

Hemoglobin F

< 1%

Homovanillic acid (urine)

< 34 µmol/day

Norepinephrine

0,37-2,6 nmol/L

Norepinephrine (urine)

89-473 nmol/day

Vanillyl-mandelic acid (urine)

9.1-33.8 µmol/day

 

Electrophoresis

 

Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme electrophoresis

bone fraction: 39-53%
liver fraction: 51-71%
activity after incubation at 56°C:
0-10% bone fraction
30-50% liver fraction

Protein electrophoresis

Albumin: 60-72%

Alpha 1 globulin: 1-4%

Alpha 2 globulin: 7-13%

Beta globulin: 7-13%

Gamma globulin: 8-16%

Creatin kinase isoenzyme electrophoresis

CK-MM: 92-100%
CK-MB: 0-6%
CK-BB: 0-2%

LDH isoenzyme electrophoresis

LDH-1: 16-31%
LDH-2: 30-41%
LDH-3: 17-26%
LDH-4: 6-12%
LDH-5: 3-17%

Lipoprotein electrophoresis

Beta lipoprotein: 29-45%
Prebeta lipoprotein: 8-22%
Alpha lipoprotein: 36-58%

 

Hematology

 

White blood cell count

4.8-10.8 G/L

Red blood cell count

male: 4.7-6.1 T/L
female: 4.2-5.4 T/L

Hemoglobin

male: 130-165 g/L
female: 115-150 g/L

Hematocrit

male: 0.39-0.50
female: 0.35-0.47

MCV

80-99 fL

MCH

27-31pg

MCHC

305-355 g/L

RDW%

11.5-14.5%

RDW-SD

37-54 fL

Platelets

150-400 G/L

MPV

7.2-11.1 fL

PDW

9-13 fL

P-LCR

13-43%

Neutrophils%

40-74%

Lymphocytes%

19-41%

Monocytes%  

3.4-9%

Eosinophils%

0.1-5%

Basophils%

0.1-1.5%

Medium sized cells%

3.6-14.5%

Reticulocytes%

0.8-2.2%

Large unstained cells%

0-4%

Neutrophils#

1.9-8.0 G/L

Lymphocytes#

0.9-4.44 G/L

Monocytes#

0.16-0.88 G/L

Eosinophils#

0.01-0.6 G/L

Basophils#

0.01-0.2 G/L

Medium sized cells#

0.18-1.68 G/L

Reticulocytes#

40-97 G/L

large unstained cells#

0-0.4 G/L

Peroxidase index

-10-10

Lobularity index

>1.9

 

Endocrinology

 

17β-Estradiol

ref. range

ACTH

<75 ng/L

Aldosterone

supine: 116-558 pmol/L

standing: 268-1734 pmol/L

Aldosterone (urine)

8.72-28.2 nmol/24 hours

Anti-TG

<60 U/ml

Anti-TPO

<60 U/ml

Androstendione

ref. range

C peptide

350-1170 pmol/L

Dehydropepiandrosterone sulphate

 

ref. range

Follicle-stimulating hormone

 

ref. range

Insulin

4.3-20 mU/L

IGF-I

16-24 years:182-780 µg/L
25-39 years:114-492 µg/L
40-54 years: 90-360 µg/L
>55 years: 71-290 µg/L

Calcitonin

<10 ng/L

Cortisol

evening (8 PM): 55-331 nmol/L
morning (8-10 AM): 138-690 nmol/L

Cortisol (urine)

72.5-372 nmol/L

GH

morning: <7 µg/L

Human chorionic gonadotropin

ref. range

Luteinizing hormone

ref. range

Natriuretic peptide (proBNP)

<54 years:

male: <16.2 pmol/L

female: <22.6 pmol/L

55-64 years:

male: <20.9 pmol/L

female:<26.6 pmol/L
65-74 years:

male: <27 pmol/L

female: <41.6 pmol/L
>75 years:

male: <100,5

female: <73.6 pmol/L

Progesterone

ref. range

Prolactin

ref. range

PTH

1.6-6.9 pmol/L

17-OH progesterone

Male:

20-53 years:1.8-10.1 nmol/L
Female:

Follicular stage: 1.2-3.1 nmol/L
Luteal stage: 3.8-13 nmol/L
Oral contraception: 0.4-3.4 nmol/L
Post menopause:0.7-4.1 nmol/L

Renin activity

supine: 0.2-2.8 µg/L/h Angiotensin I;
standing: 1.5-5.7 µg/L/h Angiotensin I

Sex hormone-binding globulin

ref. range

sTSH

0.3-3.6 mU/L

free T3

3.4-6.5 pmol/L

free T4

10.3-21.9 pmol/L

Total Testosterone

ref. range

Tyreoglobulin (HTG)

2-70 µg/L

TRAK

<9 U/L, grey zone: 9-14 U/L

 

Oncology

 

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)

<5.8 kIU/L

Carcino-embryonal antigen (CEA)

<3.4 µg/L

Tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA)

<75 U/L

Cyfra 21-1

<3.3 µg/L

Total prostate specific antigen (tPSA)

<40 years: <1.4 µg/L
40-50 years: <2.0 µg/L
50-60 years: <3.1 µg/L
60-70 years: <4.1 µg/L
>70 years: <4.4 µg/L

free/total PSA ratio
(fPSA/tPSA)

>0.19

CA 72-4

<6.9 kIU/L

CA 19-9

<34 kIU/L

CA 125

<35 kIU/L

CA 15-3

<25 kIU/L

Neuron specific enolase (NSE)

<16.3 µg/L

Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG-β)

see Endocrinology

Osteocalcin

male:
18-30 years: 24-70 µg/L
30-50 years: 14-42 µg/L
50-70 years: 14-46 µg/L
female:
pre-menopause: 11-43 µg/L
post-menopause: 15-46 µg/L

C terminal telopeptide of Type II collagen (crosslaps) (β-Ctx)

male:

30-50 years: <0.584 µg/L
50-70 years: < 0.704 µg/L
>70 years: <0.854 µg/L
female:

pre-menopause: <0.573 µg/L

post-menopause: <1.008 µg/L

 

 

Hemostasis

 

Alpha-2-plasmin inhibitor activity

80-120%

Antitrombin-III antigen

0.19-0.31 g/L

Antitrombin-III activity

80-120%

APC resistance

>2

APTT

as per the control value for the given week

Coagulation factor II

70-120%

Coagulation factor V

70-120%

Coagulation factor VII

70-130%

Coagulation factor VIII

60-150%

Coagulation factor IX

60-150%

Coagulation factor X

70-120%

Coagulation factor XI

60-140%

Coagulation factor XII

60-140%

Coagulation factor XIII antigen

14-28 mg/L (67-133 %)

Coagulation factor XIII activity

69-143% (108-224 U/L)

Quantitative determination of D-dimer

<0.5 mg FEU/L

FDP

<5 mg/L

Fibrin monomer

negative

Fibrinogen

1.5-4.0 g/L

Inhibitor titer determination (Bethesda)

<2 BU

Heparin level determination
(Factor X inhibition test)

 the therapeutic range depends on the LMWH therapy given and the mode of administration

Hexagonal phospholipid test

negative

Cardiolipin autoantibodies

IgA: <12 U/ml , IgG: <15 U/ml, IgM: <12.5 U/ml

Lupus anticoagulant screening test (APTT-LA)

compared to the control value

Lupus anticoagulant confirmatory test (diluted thromboplastin time ratio)

<1.2

Plasminogen activity

80-120%

Protein C activity

70-130%

Protein C antigen

70-140%

Protein S activity

65-140%

Protein S total antigen

70-140%

Protein S free antigen

70-130%

Protrombin time

as per the control value for the given week

Ristocetin cofactor activity

58-166%

Thrombin time

as per the control value for the given week

Platelet aggregation test

compared to the control value

Platelet count

150-400 G/L

v secretion test

compared to the control value

Bleeding time

2.5-9.5 min

von Willebrand factor antigen

50-160%

Reptilase time

compared to the control value

PFA-100

PFA-100 collagen/epinephrine: 63-142 sec, PFA-100 collagen/ADP: 55-118 sec

 

Pediatrics

 

7-dehydro-cholesterol (DHC)

<0.15 mg/L

Homogentisine acid (urine)

30 mg/mmol creatinine

Chloride (sweat)

<60 mmol/l

Met-hemoglobin

<2%

Mucopolysacharide (urine)

adult:1.9-3.9 mg/mmol creatinine
0-1 years:10-27 mg/mmol creatinine

N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (urine)
(NAG-ase)

newborn: <10 µmol/min/mmol
adult: <0.7 µmol/min/mmol

N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG-ase)

adult: 10-30 U/L

Sodium (sweat)

<60 mmol/L

Stool hemoglobin determination

negative

RBC osmotic resistance

at the initial phase of hemolysis: 75-82 mmol/L;
at total hemolysis: 43-51 mmol/L

 

 

TDM Therapeutic Range

 

Cyclosporine

0-minute, bottom: 100-200 µg/L
120-minute, peak: 400-1400 µg/L

Everolimus

3.0-8.0 µg/L

Sirolimus

5-20 µg/L

Tacrolimus

5-20 µg/L

Digoxin

0,8-2.0 µg/L

Theophylline

10-20 mg/L

Carbamazepine

4-10 mg/L

Valproic acid

50-100 mg/L

Phenytoin

10-20 mg/L

Methotrexate

depending on the therapeutic protocol